The revolution against the British government in America began in the later half of the eighteenth century. Thirteen colonies that took part in this war of independence, founded the United States of America after achieving victory. The Seven Years War against the British ended in 1781 and America's independence was approved by Britain in 1783. The American Revolution saw a number of socio-economic changes in the American society. It is important to note that America's revolt against the British, broke out mainly as a result of the monarchic policies of governance.
American Revolution Facts
The American Revolution and the associated war had far reaching effects on world politics. It won't be possible even to sum up the information about events which took place during the course of American Revolution. However, some interesting facts about this revolution are enlisted below.
- America had always been viewed as a land of opportunities. The fertile and prosperous land along with numerous other natural resources offered numerous opportunities in agriculture and trade. Farmers and merchants earned a lot from these natural resources present in the country. The British government, foreseeing a great fortune in the form of these resources, started taxing the Americans heavily. It generated unrest among them. It was well reflected by Patrick Henry's following quote, "Give me liberty or give me death!".
- The 'Boston Tea Party' of 16th December, 1773 is well-known for the protest against tax levied on tea. However, a similar protest was carried out on 7th March, 1774.
- Paul Revere, a messenger, played an important role in the war. His "Midnight Ride" which took place on the 18th April, 1775, is still afresh in the minds of Americans.
- Benjamin Franklin was outraged after seeing the violence at Concord and Lexington during the American revolution. Disgusted with ongoing events and the arrogance of the British government, Mr. Franklin wrote a declaration of independence in 1775. However, the official declaration we see today, was written by Thomas Jefferson a year after the one written by Benjamin Franklin.
- The "Boston Massacre" was a result of some British soldiers unable to control the agitating people and ultimately firing at them. Eight British soldiers and Captain Thomas Preston were held responsible for the massacre and charged with murder. However, with President John Adams defending the accused, only two of them were sentenced to death. Further, they requested for the benefit of clergy and were allowed to make penance.
- The first submarine attack in the history of world took place during the American Revolutionary war. The submarine, 'Turtle' was assigned the task of attacking a ship, 'Eagle' of the British navy. Unfortunately, the submarine could not complete its mission.
- According to the research and study conducted by a noted historian, George Neumann, the role of Benedict Arnold was crucial in America's war. He had almost conquered Canada and successfully fought a large fleet of British ships at Lake Champlain in 1775. In 1777, he made the British army surrender, at Sartoga. He took efforts to persuade the French to fight against the British.
- During the war, in 1779, 15% of America's soldiers were black. The 'First Rhode Island Regiment', which had 92 slaves and 33 freedmen, were all black. Unfortunately, all the soldiers of this regiment died in an attack by the British army.
- The American army recruited women too. Most of them served on the position of nurses and cooks, while few of them joined as soldiers. Mary Ludwig Hays and Margaret Corbin are some well-known women names in the history of American Revolution.
- George Washington was an expert in running espionage rings across America, especially in Philadelphia and New York - that were controlled by the British army. His tactics of confusing the opposition by means of disinformation and using double agents worked well.
- In 1779, the soldiers fighting for the cause of American independence were less in number than the loyalists - the ones who supported British forces. As opposed to 3,468 people fighting for independence, the loyalists were 6,500 to 8,000 in number.
- With the French army entering war to assist America, there were 29,000 Frenchmen fighting against the British, as against the 11,000 Americans.
- The monarch of Britain, George III wanted to continue fighting the Americans, even though, it was clear at the time, that the British would lose. The Parliament, however accepted the defeat and rejected the monarch's request to continue fight. The monarch who had initially written an abdication letter, withdrew it later on.
Many things had changed forever in this big country after the revolution. Besides establishing itself as a sovereign state, America was fast treading a path of development and prosperity. With the available natural resources, diversity in culture and a hardworking population, America was on its way to become a superpower.