After the World War II, the influence of Japan in Korea, ceased. With the division line drawn to form North and South Korea in 1945, there are still rifts between these two countries. Following are the points to sketch out the history about the Korean war:
Division of Korea post the II World War
With the loss that Japan faced in the Second World War, its 35 years of military control over Korea came to an end. The surrender of Japan and fundamental shifts in paradigms of global politics, led to the division of Korea into two zones.
The initiatives were taken by America and the Soviet Union, but the division was ultimately a result of the Cairo Declaration issued on 1st December, 1943. This declaration was led by Britain, the US and China, and Korea was divided into North and South Korea in December 1945.
The division line was known as 38th parallel. US held the administration of the South Korea, Soviet Union being responsible for the North Korea and, this partition was supposed to be temporary. Later, the US, Soviet Union, Britain and China were to arrange a trusteeship administration in the country in an effort to unify Korea.
However, the chances of a unified Korea evaporated with the advent of politics of the Cold War and strong opposition from the Korean anti-communists. Thus, Korea was permanently divided in the year 1948.
Causes of the Korean War
Within two years post the World war II, both countries (US and Soviet Union) pulled out of their respective parts of Korea. South Korea was left behind with a democratic government with Syngman Rhee as the president, while in North Korea, Soviets left back a communist government with Kim Il-Sung as the prime minister.
Now the main issue was to unify Korea under a single form of government. North Koreans wanted whole of Korea under Communists, whereas South Koreans believed in democracy. South Korean army was comparatively weaker than that of the North Korea, and equipped with only light weapons.
On the other hand, the North Korean army had tanks and trained artilleries. The Korean war, also known as the 6.25 war, was an attempt by North Korea to forcibly unify both the countries under the communist rule.
The Timeline and Course of War
The North Korean army crossed 38th parallel on 25th of June 1950. It was heavily armed as compared to the South Korean army, and hence easily captured prime regions of South Korea including Chuncheon, Ongjin and Uijeongbu. On June 27th the United Nations (UN) intervened, and South Korea was given support by both air and sea forces by the US.
The prime concern of all the nations was a global military challenge from the Communist world. Throughout the war, the US and other countries of United Nations assembled the forces to defeat the North Korean army. On 31st July 1950, the air force dropped 625 tons of bomb over the city of Hungnam in North Korea.
However, it was the defeat of North Korean army at Incheon, which fractured its war machine in September the same year. But with the help of its communist counterparts China and Russia, it was able to regain its strength.
Later on China retreated against UN army and by the middle of 1951, the 38th parallel was stabilized. The war ended finally on 27th July 1953, with compromises and negotiations made between North Korea and the UN, across the table.
Consequences of the War
Victory was not clearly defined, as destruction was equally induced by both the sides. The war was a disaster for the Soviet Union because of the rift in the Sino-Soviet relationship. However, it gave the Chinese a feeling of security against the US, in terms of the military strength.
Syngman Rhee was saved and the US restored his powers back, in South Korea. The combined casualities from both the sides were around 4 million, considering both civilians and soldiers.
The Korean war which is also called the Unknown war, was an example of successful containment for the US and the influence of United Nations and its allies.