Andrew Jackson rallied causes such as democracy, removal of slavery, and individual liberty. He was lovingly referred to as 'Old Hickory' for his sternness. His image on the US twenty-dollar bill is a humble tribute to the legacy. He is the last US President who served in the American Revolution.
Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767 to Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson. He was the seventh President of America, between 1829 and 1837. After eight years of retirement, he died at the age of 78, on June 8, 1845.
His childhood was one of strife. He was educated in an 'old-field' school in South Carolina. At 13, amidst the American Revolutionary War, he joined the local regiment and functioned as a courier boy. He once refused to clean a British officer's shoes, and was scarred for life when the redcoat slashed his left hand and head with a sword.
His entire family succumbed to the hardships of war, not only making him an orphan by age 14, but also very bitter towards the British. He taught in a school, while studying law himself in North Carolina. He was an effective country lawyer, and developed his career on his own.
In 1788, he took over office of Lawyer - Western District. In the year 1796, he was elected Tennessee's Representative, and was elected as Senator the following year. However, he resigned in less than a year and served as a Supreme Court judge till 1804.
Alongside his legal career, Jackson was a prosperous merchant. He bought a 640-acre plantation site near Nashville, and called the farm 'The Hermitage'. He was appointed Colonel in 1801, and led the Tennessee militia. He led his forces against the Creek Indians of Alabama and Georgia.
He was honored and recognized for his service in the 1812 war against the UK. He fought bravely in the First Seminole War, against Seminole and Creek Indians. His ruthlessness in the battle earned him the nickname 'Old Hickory'. There were international implications around his invasion of Spain.
In 1824, when the Democratic Republican Party ushered in change via the preference of people's votes over informal nominating caucus, he was nominated for President. He received popular votes, but since the electoral votes were split into four segments, the House of Representatives decided to choose the winner, and named John Adams.
Jackson attracted popular support to run for presidency again, later. This coalition defeated Adams, and he was elected President in 1829. His wife Rachel died on December 22, 1828, prior to his official inauguration. He is remembered as the first President to have invited the general public to the White House ball.
In 1832, once again Jackson won re-election against representatives of the National Republican Party and Anti-Masonic Party. While in office, he reduced federal debt, rallied for the removal of the Electoral College, and implemented 'rotation in office', to prevent corrupt bureaucracy. He fearlessly vetoed the Second Bank of the United States on the grounds of concentrated financial strength, greater participation by foreign interests, and excessive control over the Congress.
Jackson rallied support against the Tariff of Abominations and for timely Indian removal for ethnic restructuring. In 1835, there was an attempt of assassination on his life by Richard Lawrence, a deranged commoner from England. He escaped the double misfiring and cane attack. On June 8, 1845, he succumbed to tuberculosis and heart failure.