World War I was the first war involving powers from all corners of the world. It had a severe impact on not just European, but global politics. The war started with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the crown Prince of Austria, on June 28, 1914. Almost all the major powers in the European continent participated in the war. The German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, France, Italy, and Russia participated in the war.
The actual war started on July 28, 1914, when the Austro-Hungarian Empire invaded Serbia. The war lasted for four years, from 1914 to 1918. Germany laid their arms down on November 11, 1918. This day is also commonly known as Armistice Day. It was the treaty of Versailles, that ended Germany's participation in the war. The treaty signed between the Allied powers and the Ottoman Empire is the treaty of Sèvres (1920).
The treaty of Sèvres was signed on August 10, 1920. It marked the absolute end of the World War I. This treaty was signed after the treaty of Versailles was signed between the German Empire and the Allied Powers. This treaty was signed in an exhibition room of a porcelain factory in the city of Sèvres in France.
According to this treaty, the German enterprises in the Ottoman Empire were to be handed over to France, Italy, and Great Britain. The negotiations for the exact detailing took around 15 months. The negotiations started at the Paris Peace Conference. At the Conference of London, the negotiations continued. They became more tangible at the Conference of San Remo in April 1920. This treaty abolished the Ottoman Empire.
Turkey was forced to renounce all rights over the regions of Arab Asia and North Africa. The areas which were freed from the Ottoman Empire included Mesopotamia (present day Iraq), Palestine (including Transjordan), Syria, Lebanon, and the kingdom of Hejaz. The empire was divided, and the independent Armenia and the autonomous Kurdistan were carved out. Greece was given hold over Eastern Thrace and over the West coast of Anatolia. The remaining part of Anatolia was left with Turkey itself. The Greeks were also given control over the Aegean islands, due to which they could command the Dardanelles.
The treaty was accepted by the Sultan Muhammad VI at Constantinople. However, the rival government of Kemal Ataturk Pasha of Ankara rejected the treaty. There were four signatories for the Ottoman Empire, namely Riza Tevfik, ambassador Hadi Pasha, Damad Ferid Pasha, and the Minister of Education Resid Halis. A separate treaty had to be made between the USSR and Kemal Ataturk Pasha. After the Turkish War of Independence, the treaty of Sèvres was annulled. A new treaty was signed and ratified, which superseded the treaty of Sèvres. The new treaty was known as the treaty of Lausanne. The Treaty of Lausanne was signed on July 24, 1923.
The treaty of Sèvres has an important place in World War History. The different treaties signed after the end of the First World War and the political imbalance caused by them is said to be among the causes of World War II.